Production from the mature transformation pipeline during the last quarter was interrupted due to the move to the packinghouse while the AC in #103 is repaired. We lost time due to unforeseen delays in connecting utilities & other issues (no hot water, mold, AC issues, electrical problems, & autoclave issues), the physical move itself, & the set-up in the temporary laboratory. Presumably, we will lose some time moving back to #103 at the end of October. We continue to provide transgenics to Drs. Dutt, Grosser, McNellis, Mou & Wang. An additional 12 independent, transgenic mature Valencia and Hamlin scions (some events were duplicated to equal 15) were shipped to Dr. McNellis at Penn State University this quarter. These plants were small & had not undergone the secondary graft, because in vitro plants are easier & cheaper to ship than large citrus trees. Apparently they transplant very well. Ten transgenic Hamlin & Valencia scions (with duplicates & triplicates) were produced for Dr. Mou that also had not undergone secondary grafting. Secondary grafts have been performed on all plants for Drs. Grosser, Dutt, and Wang, to enhance the growth of the transgenics. Six additional transgenics were transferred to Dr. Wang. Approximately 21 transgenics have been produced for Dutt & Grosser since the last report, of which 16 had rooted & were transferred. Dr. Hao Wu presented a talk at the ASHS meetings in Atlanta, GA. His talk was entitled, “Biolistic transformation of citrus”, ASHS Annual Meeting, Atlanta, August 7-11, 2016. Recently we introduced Kurhaski and Glen Navel cultivars for Drs. Grosser and Dutt through shoot-tip grafting (STG). Kurharski is a rootstock similar to Carrizo but it has some nematode tolerance, and Glen Navel sweet orange is pollen sterile, so it will provide a contained system to prevent transgene flow. Some of the budwood from FDACs in Chiefland was contaminated with the yeast endophyte, so it was essential that STGs be conducted on all introduced material prior to tissue culture. Mandarin & pummelo are being introduced for Dr. Wang. Phosmannose isomerase (PMI) selection works well after biolistics in immature citrus & it significantly decreases the number of escapes compared with nptII selection. Using PMI selection after biolistics, we were able to produce an additional 10 immature transgenics while significantly decreasing the number of nontransformed escapes. We are still investigating whether PMI will be useful for mature citrus transformations. Initial observations indicate that mannose is toxic to mature shoot development, but tests are being conducted to determine the effect of mannose after the shoots have formed on sucrose medium.