The project has two objectives: (1) Increase citrus disease resistance by activating the natural SAR inducer-mediated defense-signaling pathway. (2) Engineer non-host resistance in citrus to control citrus canker and HLB. In this quarter, we specifically tested the SAR inducer-activated residual activity in potted citrus seedlings. The seedlings were treated by either root drench or foliar infiltration with the SAR inducer. After the first round of disease resistance test, the plants were cut back. Two months later, residual activity in the new flashes was tested. Results showed statistically significant reduction in the number of canker lesions formed in leaves on the plants pre-treated with the SAR inducer. Reduction in the number of lesions was, on average, from 15% at a low dose (0.25 mM) to 40-50% at higher doses of the SAR inducer (5-10 mM). These results demonstrate that the SAR inducer activates strong residual activity in new flushes at least two months after the pre-treatment. We also confirmed the priming effect of the SAR inducer. Briefly, leaves were treated with 1 mM of the SAR inducer. The treated leaves were infected with citrus canker bacterial pathogens 36 hours later. The infected leaf tissues were collected at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours later, similarly as in the previous experiments. Expression of PAL1,NPR1, PR5, CM1, ICS1, CM1, CM2, and PLDg was analyzed by real-time qPCR. We confirmed that expression of PAL1, NPR1, PR5, CM1, and ICS1 was significantly enhanced by pre-treatment with the SAR inducer, corroborating that the SAR inducer indeed has strong priming effects in citrus.