The main accomplishments during this quarter: We repeated and confirmed the effects of K and I genes on genetic transformation for cultivars Valencia and Washington oranges and observed drastic increases in transformation efficiencies if compared to a conventional Ti-plasmid vector containing no K or I gene. We have confirmed that the K and I genes can drastically enhance transformation efficiencies of juvenile explants of 5 different citrus cultivars. We started test the effects of the K gene on transformation efficiency of a lemon cultivar. Lemon is difficult for genetic transformation. Our major efforts have been in testing the effects of the K and I genes and other factors on mature tissues. We used K and I genes to do genetic transformation of mature �Pineapple� orange. The K gene resulted in about two fold increases in transformation efficiency while the I gene produced about three fold increases in efficiency compared to control vector. We have also started testing effects of other factors on transformation of mature tissues in combination with the K gene. We have made some significant progress but microbial contaminations of adult tissues harvested from greenhouse grown trees have sometimes caused problems for us. One example is that we have repeated and confirmed the effects of the transport of an endogenous plant hormone in explants on shoot regeneration efficiency. We observed that manipulating that process improves shoot regeneration and transformation efficiency of juvenile citrus explants. We are testing the effects of the same manipulation on transformation efficiency of adult tissues of citrus.