During this reporting time period, we made the following progresses for the proposed objectives: We have been testing the effects of the proposed genes on transformation efficiencies of both juvenile and adult citrus tissues particularly on transient and stable transformation efficiencies. The results have been inconsistent and we are conducting additional testing. We have also testing the effects of selected chemical agents for transient and stable transformation efficiencies of citrus. Our preliminarily results show that some agents may be effective in enhancing transformation efficiencies. We are further testing the effects of over-expressing an auxin biosyntetic gene predominately in roots on success rate of micro-grafting. A manuscript reporting effects of over-expression of an auxin biosynthetic gene on grafting success has been accepted by “Plant Biotechnology Journal”. The auxin gene may be useful for micro-grafting of citrus plants. The relevant genes have been shipped to Dr. Janice Zale, The Mature Citrus Facility (MCF) of the University of Florida.