Citrus trees transformed with a chimera AMP and a thionin alone showed remarkable resistance in citrus canker compared to control. These promising transgenic lines were replicated for HLB challenge. Propagated transgenic Carrizo lines expressing thionin, chimera and control were grafted with HLB infected rough lemon buds. Twelve months after graft inoculation, Las titer was examined and compared in old leaves (most with HLB symptom), young expanded leaves (with or without HLB symptom) and fibrous roots of transgenic and control plants. Our results showed again that transgenic citrus expressing Mthionin has lower Las titer compared to control and transgenic plant expressing chimera. These data suggest transgenic plants expressing thionin are promising for HLB resistance (The manuscript for this research will be published in Frontiers in Plant Biology). Antibody against thionin will be produced for investigating the correlation of thionin expression and HLB resistance. Two new chimeral peptides (second generation) were developed and used to produce many Carrizo plants and Hamlin shoots. Transgenic carrizo plants carrying second generation AMPs were obtained. DNA was isolated from 46 plants and 40 of them are PCR positive. Furthermore, the third generation chimeral peptides were designed based on citrus thionins, the vector construction were finished and citrus transformation are underway. To explore broad spectrum resistance, a flagellin receptor gene FLS2 from tobacco was used to transform citrus. Trees expressing NbFLS2 showed significant canker resistance to spray inoculation. Replicated Carrizo and Hamlin were challenged with ACP feeding. Leaves were taken six months after ACP feeding inoculation. DNA was isolated and Las titer was tested. Our preliminary results showed that transgenic trees expressing NbFLS2 can reduced Las titer. To disrupt HLB development by manipulating Las pathogenesis, a luxI homolog potentially producing AHLs to bind LuxR in Las was cloned into binary vector and transformed citrus. Both transformed Carrizo and Hamlin were obtained. Replicated transgenic Carrizo plants were challenged by ACP feeding. Las tilter will be tested soon. Transgenic Hamlin were propagated by grafting for HLB challenge. In collaboration with Bill Belknap two new citrus-derived promoters have been tested using a GUS reporter gene and have been shown to have extraordinarily high levels of tissue-specific expression. The phloem-specific promoter was used to create a construct for highly phloem specific expression of the chimeral peptide using citrus genes only. A Las protein p235 with a nuclear-localization sequence has been identified and studied. Carrizo transformed with this gene displays leaf yellowing similar to that seen in HLB-affected trees. Gene expression levels, determined by RT-qPCR , correlated with HLB-like symptoms. P235 translational fusion with GFP shows the gene product targets to citrus chloroplasts. Transcription data were obtained by RNA-Seq. Data analysis and comparison are underway. Antibodies (ScFv) to the Las invA and TolC genes, and constructs to overproduce them, were created by John Hartung under an earlier CRDF project. We have transgenic Carrizo reflecting almost 400 independent transgenic events and 17 different ScFv ready for testing. A series of AMP transgenics scions produced in the last several years continue to move forward in the testing pipeline. Many trees are in the field and some are growing well but are not immune to HLB. A large number of ubiquitin::D4E1 and WDV::D4E1 plants and smaller numbers with other AMPs are replicated and now in the field.